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  • 无纺布是医用胶布原材料
  • 本站编辑:必威官网_必威官方网站_必威官方必威官网发布日期:2020-02-10 20:09 浏览次数:
无纺布的确切名称应是非织造布,或叫不织布。因为它是一种不需要纺纱织布而形成的织物,只是将纺织短纤维或者长丝进行定向或随机撑列,形成纤网结构,然后采用机械、热粘或化学等方法加固而成。非织造布突破了传统的纺织原理,并具有工艺流程短、生产速度快,产量高、成本低、用途广、原料来源多等特点.
 
      无纺布优点:1)通气性 2)过滤性 3)保温性 4)吸水性 5)防水性 6)伸缩性 7)不蓬乱 8)手感好、柔软 9)轻盈 10)有弹性、可复原11)没有布料的方向性 12)与纺织布相比生产性高、生产速度快 13)价格低、可大量生产 等等。
 
无纺布缺点:1)与纺织布相比强度和耐久性较差 2)不能象其他布料一样清洗 3)纤维按一定方向排列、所以容易从直角方向裂开等。因此最近生产方法的改善主要放在防止分裂的改良上。
 
 无纺布的分类
      水刺无纺布:水刺工艺是将高压微细水流喷射到一层或多层纤维网上,使纤维相互缠结在 一起,从而使纤网得以加固而具备一定强力。
 
      热粘合无纺布:热粘合无纺布是指在纤网中加入纤维状或粉状热熔粘合加固材料,纤网再经 过加热熔融冷却加固成布。
 
      浆粕气流成网无纺布:气流成网无纺布又可称做无尘纸、干法造纸无纺布。它是采用气流成网技术 将木浆纤维板开松成单纤维状态,然后用气流方法使纤维凝集在成网帘上,纤网再加固成布。
 
      湿法无纺布:湿法无纺布是将置于水介质中的纤维原料开松成单纤维,同时使不同纤维原 料混合,制成纤维悬浮浆,悬浮浆输送到成网机构,纤维在湿态下成网再加固成布。
 
      纺粘无纺布:纺粘无纺布是在聚合物已被挤出、拉伸而形成连续长丝后,长丝铺设成网, 纤网再经过自身粘合、热粘合、化学粘合或机械加固方法,使纤网变成无纺布。
 
      熔喷无纺布:熔喷无纺布的工艺过程:聚合物喂入---熔融挤出---纤维形成---纤维冷却---成网---加固成布。
 
      针刺无纺布:针刺无纺布是干法无纺布的一种,针刺无纺布是利用刺针的穿刺作用,将蓬 松的纤网加固成布。
 
      缝编无纺布: 缝编无纺布是干法无纺布的一种,缝编法是利用经编线圈结构对纤网、纱线 层、非纺织材料(例如塑料薄片、塑料薄金属箔等)或它们的组合体进行加固,以制成无纺布
 
      用于无纺布生产的三大纤维为聚丙烯纤维(占总数的62%)、聚酯纤维 (占总数的24%)和粘胶纤维(占总数的8%)。在1970~1985年间,粘胶纤维在无纺布生产中的应用最多。但最近5年内,在卫生吸收材料及医药用纺织品领域,聚丙烯纤维和聚酯纤维的应用开始占优势。在早期的无纺布生产市场,尼龙的用量很大,从1998年开始,丙烯酸纤维的用量开始上升,特别是在人造革制造领域。
 
      无纺布特点介绍:无纺布是一种非织造布,它是直接利用高聚物切片、短纤维或长丝将纤维 通过气流或机械成网,然后经过水刺,针刺,或热轧加固,最后经过后整理形成的无编织的布料。具有柔软、透气和平面结构的新型纤维制品,优点是不产生纤维屑,强韧、耐用、丝般柔软,而且还有棉质的感觉,和棉织品相比,无纺布的袋子容易成形,而且造价便宜。
 
      在环保方面:目前使用的大多数无纺布的原材料是聚丙烯,而塑料袋的原 材料是聚乙烯,两种物质虽然名字相似,但在化学结构上却相差甚远。聚乙烯的化学分子结构具有相当强的稳定性,极难降解,所以塑料袋需要300年才可分解完毕;而聚丙烯的化学结构不牢固,分子链很容易就可断裂,从而可以有效地降解,并且在无毒的形态中进入下一步环境循环,一个无纺布购物袋在90天内就可以彻底分解。而且无纺布购物袋可重复使用10次以上,废弃后对环境的污染度也只有塑料袋的10% 。
The exact name of nonwovens should be nonwovens, or nonwovens. Because it is a kind of fabric that does not need spinning and weaving, it is only made by directional or random supporting of short textile fibers or filaments to form a fiber net structure, and then reinforced by mechanical, thermal bonding or chemical methods. Nonwovens break through the traditional textile principle, and have the characteristics of short technological process, fast production speed, high output, low cost, wide use and many sources of raw materials
 
 
 
Advantages of non-woven fabrics: 1) ventilation; 2) filtration; 3) heat preservation; 4) water absorption; 5) water resistance; 6) expansion; 7) no mess; 8) good hand feel and softness; 9) light weight; 10) elasticity and recoverability; 11) no fabric directionality; 12) high productivity and high production speed compared with textile fabrics; 13) low price and mass production.
 
 
 
Disadvantages of non-woven fabrics: 1) poor strength and durability compared with textile fabrics; 2) cannot be cleaned like other fabrics; 3) fibers are arranged in a certain direction, so it is easy to crack from a right angle, etc. Therefore, the recent improvement of production methods mainly focuses on the improvement of prevention of division.
 
 
 
Classification of non-woven fabrics
 
 
 
Spunlace non-woven fabric: spunlace technology is to spray high-pressure micro water to one or more layers of fiber nets, so that the fibers are intertwined, so that the fiber nets can be strengthened and have a certain strength.
 
 
 
Thermal bonded non-woven fabric: thermal bonded non-woven fabric refers to the addition of fiber like or powder like hot-melt bonding reinforcement materials to the fiber mesh, which is then heated, melted and cooled to form a cloth.
 
 
 
Pulp air laid nonwovens: air laid nonwovens can also be called dust-free paper and dry paper-making nonwovens. It is to open the wood pulp fiberboard into a single fiber state by the air flow net forming technology, and then to agglomerate the fiber on the net curtain by the air flow method, and then to reinforce the net into cloth.
 
 
 
Wet non-woven fabric: wet non-woven fabric is to loosen the fiber raw materials placed in the water medium into a single fiber, at the same time, mix different fiber raw materials to make fiber suspension slurry, which is transported to the network forming mechanism, and then the fiber is formed into a network in the wet state and then reinforced into a cloth.
 
 
 
Spunbond nonwovens: spunbond nonwovens are formed by extruding and stretching the polymer to form continuous filament, then the filament is laid into a net, and then the net is made into a nonwovens by self adhesion, thermal adhesion, chemical adhesion or mechanical reinforcement.
 
 
 
Melt blown nonwovens: the process of melt blown nonwovens: polymer feeding - melt extrusion - fiber formation - fiber cooling - Netting - reinforcing into cloth.
 
 
 
Needled non-woven fabric: needled non-woven fabric is a kind of dry non-woven fabric. Needled non-woven fabric uses the puncture effect of the needle to strengthen the fluffy fiber net into a fabric.
 
 
 
Sewing non-woven fabric: the sewing non-woven fabric is a kind of dry non-woven fabric. The sewing method uses the warp knitting coil structure to reinforce the fiber net, yarn layer, non-woven material (such as plastic sheet, plastic thin metal foil, etc.) or their combination to make non-woven fabric
 
 
 
The three major fibers used in non-woven fabric production are polypropylene fiber (62%), polyester fiber (24%) and viscose fiber (8%). From 1970 to 1985, viscose fiber was widely used in the production of non-woven fabrics. However, in the past five years, the application of polypropylene fiber and polyester fiber has become dominant in the field of health absorbing materials and medical textiles. In the early non-woven production market, the amount of nylon is very large. Since 1998, the amount of acrylic fiber has increased, especially in the field of artificial leather manufacturing.
 
 
 
Introduction to the characteristics of non-woven fabric: non-woven fabric is a kind of non-woven fabric. It is a kind of non-woven fabric that directly uses polymer chips, short fibers or filaments to form a net by air flow or machinery, and then it is reinforced by pricking, needling, or hot rolling, and finally it is finished. The new fiber products with soft, breathable and plane structure have the advantages of no fiber chips, strong, durable and silky softness, as well as the feeling of cotton. Compared with cotton fabrics, non-woven bags are easy to form and cheap.
 
 
 
In the aspect of environmental protection: most of the raw materials of non-woven fabrics used at present are polypropylene, while the raw materials of plastic bags are polyethylene. Although the names of the two substances are similar, their chemical structures are far from each other. The chemical molecular structure of polyethylene is very stable and very difficult to degrade, so it takes 300 years for the plastic bags to decompose; while the chemical structure of polypropylene is not solid, and the molecular chain is easy to break, so it can be effectively degraded, and enter the next environmental cycle in the non-toxic form, a non-woven shopping bag can decompose completely in 90 days. Moreover, the non-woven shopping bag can be reused for more than 10 times, and the environmental pollution degree of discarded shopping bag is only 10% of that of plastic bag.
 
 
 
Author: balsam pear Exhibition
 
Link: https://www.jianshu.com/p/2edce587ed87
 
Source: Jianshu
 
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